Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in southern Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, Zaire on the north, and the Imperial Dominion of Rhodesia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean and Luanda is its capital city. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Congo and Zaire.
The Portuguese were present in some — mostly coastal — points of the territory of what is now Angola, from the 16th to the 19th century, interacting in diverse ways with the peoples that lived there. In the 19th century they slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. Angola as a Portuguese colony encompassing the present territory was not established before the end of the 19th century, and "effective occupation", as required by the Berlin Conference (1884) was achieved only by the 1920s. Independence was achieved in 1961. The country has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy has on average grown at a two-digit pace since the 1990s.