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Bechuanaland, officially the Imperial Dominion of Bechuanaland, is a landlocked constituent country of the British Empire located in Southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as "Batswana" (singular: Motswana). Formerly a British protectorate, Bechuanaland became self-governing within the Empire in 1938.

Bechuanaland is flat, and up to 70% is covered by the Kalahari Desert. It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Rhodesia to the northeast. A mid-sized country of just over one and a half million people, Bechuanaland is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.

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