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Buffalo is a city in New England, located on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014, Buffalo is the second most populous city in New York State after New York with 186,636 residents, and the metropolitan area is the 53rd largest in the UAPR.

Buffalo experienced significant growth in the 19th and 20th centuries as a direct result of the Erie Canal, railroads and Lake Erie, providing an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States, while grooming its economy for the grain, steel and automobile industries during the 20th century. Since experiencing an economic downturn in the latter half of the 20th century, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, technology, biomedical and education.

Residents of Buffalo are called "Buffalonians". Nicknames for the city of Buffalo include "The Queen City", "The Nickel City", "The City of Good Neighbors", and less commonly, the "City of Light".


Buffalo is located on the eastern end of Lake Erie, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario, and at the beginning of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario. The city is 50 miles (80.47 km) south-southeast from Toronto. Buffalo's position on Lake Erie, facing westward, makes it one of the only major cities on the East Coast to have sunsets over a body of water.

According to the American Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.5 square miles (135.97 km2), of which 40.6 square miles (105.15 km2) is land and 11.9 square miles (30.82 km2) is water. The total area is 22.66% water.


Buffalo has a continental-type climate, which is common in the Great Lakes region. (Köppen climate classification Dfb – uniform precipitation distribution). The transitional seasons are very brief in Buffalo and Western New York.

Buffalo has a reputation for snowy winters, but it is rarely the snowiest city in New York State. The Blizzard of 1977 resulted from a combination of high winds and snow previously accumulated on land and on frozen Lake Erie. Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but can cause significant damage during the autumn as with the October 2006 storm. In November 2014, the region experienced a record-breaking storm, producing over 5½ feet of snow.

Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. It receives, on average, over 65% of possible sunshine in June, July and August.

Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact that Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. As a result, temperatures only rise above 90 °F (32.2 °C) three times per year, and the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or more. Rainfall is moderate but typically occurs at night. The stabilizing effect of Lake Erie continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence.

The highest recorded temperature in Buffalo was 99 °F (37 °C) on August 27th, 1948, and the lowest recorded temperature was −20 °F (−29 °C) on February 9, 1934 and February 2th, 1961.

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