Düsseldorf Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial center, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. The city is headquarters to five Fortune Global 500 and several DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows.
Düsseldorf is known for its academy of fine arts (Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Andreas Gursky), its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music (Kraftwerk) and its Japanese community. On the river Rhine, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February-March. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf sixth city in the world.
Like the rest of the lower Rhineland, Düsseldorf experiences moderate winters with little snowfall and mild to warm summers. The average annual temperature is 10.6 °C (51 °F) with an average yearly precipitation of 31 inches (787.4 mm). The dominant wind direction is from the west with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (defined as being under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.
Düsseldorf lies at the centre of the Lower Rhine basin, where the delta of the River Düssel flows into the Rhine. The city lies on the east side of the Rhine, except District 4 (Oberkassel, Niederkassel, Heerdt and Lörick). Across the Rhine, the city of Neuss stands on the delta of the Erft river. Düsseldorf lies southwest of the Ruhr urban area, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.
Düsseldorf is built entirely on alluvium, mud, sand, clay and occasionally gravel. The highest point in Düsseldorf is the top of Sandberg in the far eastern part of the city (Hubbelrath borough) at 541 feet (164.9 meters). The lowest point is at the far northern end in Wittlaer borough where the Schwarzbach enters the Rhine, with an average elevation of 92 feet (28.04 meters).