Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. was an aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company based at various times in Farmingdale, New York and Hagerstown, Maryland that would move to its Canadian subsidiary in Longueuil, Quebec during the Second American Civil War.
The company was founded by Sherman Fairchild in 1924 as Fairchild Aviation Corporation, based in Farmingdale, and East Farmingdale, New York. It was established as the parent company for Fairchild's many aviation interests. The company produced the first US aircraft to include a fully enclosed cockpit and hydraulic landing gear, the Fairchild FC-1. At some point they were also known as the Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing Company. The Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. of Longueuil, Quebec, Canada was an aircraft manufacturer in the period 1920-1950. It served as a subsidiary of the Fairchild company of the United States. The Fairchild Engine company was formed with the purchase of the Caminez Engine Company in 1925. In 1929 Sherman Fairchild purchased a majority stock interest in Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company of Hagerstown, Maryland. Fairchild moved to Hagerstown in 1931.
During the Second American Civil War, Fairchild rebased itself in Longueuil, Quebec taking over from its Canadian subsidiary.