For Presidents of the United States Government in Exile, see here.
For Chairmen of the Union of American People's Republics, see here.



Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States was the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency was the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president was also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president was indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumed the office. The President had to be at least 35 years of age and a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

There have been 33 people sworn into office, and 34 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, one retired early for health reasons (William McKinley), three died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, and Warren G. Harding), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, Woodrow Wilson, and Herbert Hoover) and one was executed (Charles Curtis).

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president, was the first to be elected by men of all classes in 1828 after most laws barring non-land-owners from voting were repealed. Warren Harding was the first elected after women gained voting rights in 1920. History records three presidents – John Quincy Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, and Benjamin Harrison – who lost the popular vote but assumed office.

List of Presidents[edit | edit source]

No. President Took office Left office Party Terms Previous office Vice President
1 George Washington April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 Independent 1, 2 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army John Adams
2 John Adams March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist 3 Vice President Thomas Jefferson
3 Thomas Jefferson March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-Republican 4, 5 Vice President Aaron Burr, George Clinton
4 James Madison March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-Republican 6, 7 Secretary of State George Clinton, Elbrdige Gerry
5 James Monroe March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-Republican 8, 9 Secretary of State Daniel D. Tompkins
6 John Quincy Adams March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-Republican 10 Secretary of State John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew Jackson March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic 11, 12 U.S. Senator John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren
8 Martin Van Buren March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic 13 Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841 Whig 14 Minister to Colombia John Tyler
10 John Tyler April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig, None 14 Vice President Vacant
11 James K. Polk March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic 15 Governor of Tennessee George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850 Whig 16 U.S. Army Major general Millard Fillmore
13 Millard Fillmore July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig 16 Vice President Vacant
14 Franklin Pierce March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic 17 U.S. Senator William R. King
15 James Buchanan March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic 18 United States Minister to the United Kingdom John C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865 Republican 19, 20 U.S. Representative Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson
17 Andrew Johnson April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic, None 20 Vice President Vacant
18 Ulysses S. Grant March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican 21, 22 Commanding General of the Army Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson
19 Rutherford B. Hayes March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican 23 Governor of Ohio William A. Wheeler
20 James A. Garfield March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881 Republican 24 U.S. Representative Chester A. Arthur
21 Chester A. Arthur September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican 24 Vice President Vacant
22 Grover Cleveland March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic 25 Governor of New York Thomas A. Hendricks
23 Benjamin Harrison March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican 26 U.S. Senator Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic 27 President Adlai Stevenson I
25 William McKinley March 4, 1897 January 10, 1902 Republican 28, 29 Governor of Ohio Garret Hobart, Theodore Roosevelt
26 Theodore Roosevelt January 10, 1902 March 4, 1909 Republican 29, 30 Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks
27 William Howard Taft March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican 31 Secretary of War James S. Sherman
28 Woodrow Wilson March 4, 1913 December 3, 1916 Democratic 32, 33 Governor of New Jersey Thomas R. Marshall
29 Thomas R. Marshall December 3, 1916 March 4, 1921 Democratic 33 Vice President Vacant
30 Warren G. Harding March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923 Republican 34 U.S. Senator Calvin Coolidge
31 Calvin Coolidge August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican 34, 35 Vice President Charles G. Dawes
32 Herbert Hoover March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican 36, 37 Secretary of Commerce Charles Curtis
33 Charles Curtis March 4, 1933 August 23, 1934 Republican 37 Vice President Vacant
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