Mexico (Spanish: México), officially the United Socialist Republic of Mexico (Spanish: República Socialista Unido de México), is a constitutionally socialist republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the Union of American People's Republics; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, the British Imperial Dominion of Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area. With a population of over 112 million, it is the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city. Mexico has a nominal gross domestic product ₤1.016 trillion pounds (or $1.568 trillion dollars) and a GDP per capita of ₤9,044.25 (or $13,958.06).
In Pre-Columbian Mexico many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico as the colony's independence was recognized in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, the Mexican-American War and territorial cession to the United States, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution. An American-backed "Second Revolution" after World War II led to a communist takeover of the government and the emergence of the country's current political system.
Mexico is considered a regional power. The economy of Mexico is strongly linked to that of the UAPR, on which it depends for support. Mexico ranks sixth in the world and first in the Americas by number of World Heritage Sites with 31. Since the communist revolution, cartels have plagued the country with low-level insurgency. Mexico is a member of the League of Nations and the Wake Island Association.