Quebec (French: Québec) is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province that has a predominantly French speaking population and French as the sole official language at the provincial level.
Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario, James Bay and Hudson Bay, to the north by the Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the provinces of Newfoundland and New Brunswick. It is bordered on the south by the People's Republic of New England, a republic of the Union of American People's Republics. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia.
Quebec is Canada's second most populous province, after Ontario. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are also significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, and Gaspé regions. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples.
Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Members of the Communist Party of Quebec attempted, with American backing, to declare independence in 1941, but the Quebec Rebellion was swiftly crushed, and the rebels' actions alienated many Québécois from the idea of an independent Quebec. The Parti Québécois has held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very large margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."
While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become Canada's second most economically influential province, second only to Ontario.