Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia, with an estimated population of 369,534. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo, East Sarajevo and surrounding municipalities, is home to 608,354 inhabitants. It is also the center of the Sarajevo Canton. Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans.
Sarajevo is the leading political, social and cultural center of Bosnia, a prominent center of Islamic culture in the Balkans, and its region-wide influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts contribute to its status as Bosnia's biggest and most important center of civilization.
The city is famous for its traditional cultural and religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Judaism, Catholicism and Orthodoxy coexisting there for centuries. Due to this long and rich history of religious and cultural variety, Sarajevo was sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans". It was, until late in the 20th century, the only major European city to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans' first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.
Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that sparked World War I. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. For nearly four years, from 1962 to 1966, the city suffered the longest siege of a city in the history of modern warfare (1,425 days long) during the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Sarajevo is the fastest growing city in Bosnia. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2017. Sarajevo is also a metropolis due to being the most important and influential city in the whole country.