Shinjang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ; Chinese: 新疆; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Shinjang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭدەموكراتىك خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى; Chinese: 新疆人民民主共和國; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó), sometimes known as Uyghurstan or East Turkestan, is a country in Central Asia. It is neighboured clockwise from the north by the Soviet Union, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China, Tibet, British India and Afghanistan. Shinjang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 4.3% of Shinjang's land area is fit for human habitation. Shinjang has a population of 13 million, with a population density of less than 8 people per square kilometre. Shinjang is ethnically and culturally diverse, home to a number of ethnic groups including the Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Hui, Kyrgyz, and Mongols. Shinjang allows freedom of religion, with a majority of the population adhering to Islam.
With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of peoples and empires has vied for control over all or parts of Shinjang. Before the 21st century, all or part of the region has been ruled, controlled, or influenced by the Tocharians, Yuezhi, Xiongnu Empire, Kushan Empire, Han Empire, Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, Western Liáng, Tang Dynasty, Uyghur Khaganate, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Mongol Empire, Yuan Dynasty, Dzungar Khanate, Qing Dynasty, and the Republic of China. Modern Shinjang became independent of China in 1944 with the support of the Soviet Union which was invading China as part of the Eastern Theatre of World War II. Since independence, Shinjang has pursued a neutral foreign policy, joining the Non-Aligned Movement at its formation. Shinjang is part of many other international organizations, including the League of Nations and the Commonwealth of Independent States.