Slovenia (Slovene: Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija), is a nation state in southern Central Europe at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It borders Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Croatia to the south and southeast and Hungary to the northeast. It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.05 million. It is a parliamentary republic and a member of the European Economic Community. Its capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Four major European geographic units meet on the territory of Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinaric Mountains, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean, with a small portion of coastline along the Adriatic Sea. The territory has a mosaic structure and an exceptionally high landscape and biological diversity, which are a result of natural attributes and the long-term presence of humans. Although the climate in the mainly hilly territory is influenced by the continental climate, the Slovene Littoral enjoys the sub-Mediterranean climate, while the Alpine climate is found in the north-western part of the country. The country is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karstic underground watercourses. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.
The Slavic, Germanic, Romance and Hungarian languages meet here. Although the region is not homogenous, the predominant population is Slovene. Slovene is the only official language throughout the country, whereas Italian and Hungarian are regional minority languages. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small, open, export-oriented and, subsequently, strongly influenced by international conditions. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.
Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the internationally unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, which merged with Kingdom of Serbia into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied by Germany, Italy, and Hungary. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Economic Community, in 2007 joined the Eurozone, and in 2010 joined the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries.