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The Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), commonly known as South China, is a state in East Asia based in southern China. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China to the north, East and West Japan to the northeast, Tibet and the British Empire to the west, and Vietnam, Laos and the Philippines to the south. Guangzhou is the political capital and Shanghai is the largest city. The ROC is made up of the Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces.

The Republic of China was established in mainland China in 1912 with the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. In mid 1939, the ROC surrendered to Japanese forces and China was placed under the administration of a Japanese puppet state until the end of World War II. Several states were established in the occupied areas of China after the Second World War: Manchuria, Mongolia and Shinjang in areas occupied by the Soviet Union; the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the area occupied by the Union of American People's Republics; and Tibet and the Republic of China in the areas occupied by the British Empire. Neither the PRC nor the ROC recognize one another, and both claim each other's territory. The Republic of China also claims territory of Mongolia, Manchuria and Shinjang, but it has relaxed its claims and currently operates under a live-and-let-live policy towards these states. Relations between the ROC and PRC as well as issues of national identity within the country are important factors in Republic of China politics and a cause of social and political division among political parties and their respective supporters.

During the latter half of the 20th century, the ROC has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization and is now an advanced industrial economy with a nominal GDP of £6.686 trillion (¥326.9 trillion). In the 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC evolved into a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage. The Republic of China is a member of the League of Nations and a recognized Nuclear Weapons State, and has a special membership in the Allied Pact. Its advanced technology industry plays a key role in the global economy. The ROC is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, and human development.