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Urundi, officially the Republic of Urundi (Kirundi: Republika y'Uburundi; French: République d'Urundi), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of Southeast Africa, bordered by Ruanda to the north, British Tanganyika to the east and south and Zaire to the west. It is also sometimes considered part of Central Africa. Urundi's capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika.

The Twa, Hutu and Tutsi peoples have lived in Urundi for at least five hundred years and, for over two hundred years, Urundi was ruled as a kingdom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, however, Germany and Belgium occupied the region and Urundi and Ruanda became a European colony. Social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu have since contributed to political unrest in the region, leading to civil war in the middle of the twentieth century. Presently, Urundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic.

Urundi is one of the five poorest countries in the world. It has one of the lowest per capita GDPs of any nation in the world. The country has suffered from warfare, corruption and poor access to education. Urundi is densely populated and experiences substantial emigration. According to a 2012 DHL Global Connectedness Index, Urundi is the least globalized of 140 surveyed countries.

According to the Global Hunger Index of 2013, Urundi has an indicator ratio of 38.8 earning the nation the distinction of being the hungriest country in the world in terms of percentage.