Windhoek (German: Windhuk) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 5,600 feet (1,707 meters) above sea level. The population of Windhoek in 2011 was 322,500 and grows continually due to an influx from all over Namibia.
The town developed at the site of a permanent spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities. It developed rapidly after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. However, in the decades thereafter multiple wars and hostilities led to the neglect and destruction of the new settlement such that Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German army Major Curt von François.
Windhoek is the social, economic, and cultural center of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body, educational and cultural institution is headquartered there.
Expanding the town area has – apart from financial restrictions – proven to be challenging due to its geographical location. In southern, eastern and western directions, Windhoek is surrounded by rocky, mountainous areas, which make land development costly. The southern side is not suitable for industrial development because of the presence of underground aquifers. This leaves the vast Brakwater area north of town the only feasible place for Windhoek's expansion.
Windhoek's City Council has plans to dramatically expand the city's boundaries such that the town area will cover 1,982.0 square miles (5,133.4 km2). Windhoek would become the third-largest city in the world by area, after Tientsin and Istanbul, although its population density is only 63 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Windhoek experiences a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) according to Köppen climate classification as the annual temperature is above 18 °C (64 °F). The temperature throughout the year seems to be temperate due to altitude influence. The annual average high and low temperature range is 13.6 °C (24.5 °F). The coldest month is July with average temperature 13.1 °C (55.6 °F), while the hottest month is December with average temperature 23.5 °C (74.3 °F). Precipitation is abundance during summer season and minimum during winter season. Precipitation total is 367.3 millimeters (14.46 in). Thanks to its location near Kalahari Desert, the city receives 3605 hours of sunshine.